利用Nginx替代apache实现高性能的Web环境

8/3/2009来源:PHP教程人气:10480

作者:NetSeek
欢迎转载,转载请注明出处: http://bbs.linuxpk.com
原文链接:http://bbs.linuxpk.com/thread-11845-1-1.html

Nginx介绍:
Nginx发音为[engine x],是由俄罗斯人Igor Sysoev建立的项目,基于BSD许可。
据说他当初是F5的成员之一,英文主页:http://nginx.net。俄罗斯的一些大网站已经使用它超过两年多了, 一直表现不凡,相信想了解nginx的朋友都读过阿叶大哥的利用nginx实现负载均衡的文章相关链接见(六)。
 
测试环境:红动中国(redocn)提供运营服务器环境.

关于红动服务环境:
红动中国在早期利用apache环境,再加上一些优化的工作,一直是相对很稳定,但是最近由于网站发展,访问量越来越大,在线人数一多经常出现,负载过高,性能急剧下降,经过双木站长的同意,考虑是否能利用nginx来代替apache,经过长时间的观察目前nginx工作很稳定,系统也不会再说现高负载的状况,占用内存也很低,访问速率从用户体验来看明显有提升.

关于红动中国:
红动中国(redocn)论坛经过近1年的快速发展,目前日均页面访问量超过100万,位居全球设计论坛(中文)第1位,是国内最具影响力的设计论坛之一。目前论坛拥有近20万会员,包括众多设计界领军人物在内的行业中坚力量、相关艺术院校师生以及部分设计爱好者等。
 
迁移目标:实现网站论坛静态化,防盗链,下载并发数和速率限制,实现原站apache所具有的所有功能,将原apache环境下的站点全部迁移到Nginx
 
一.php(Fastcgi)编译安装
[[email protected] php-5.2.4]# cat in.sh./configure \

        –PRefix=/usr/local/php-fcgi \

        –enable-fastcgi \

        –enable-discard-path \

        –enable-force-cgi-redirect \

        –with-config-file-path=/usr/local/php-fcgi/etc \

        –enable-zend-multibyte \

        –with-MySQL=/usr/local/mysql \

        –with-libxml-dir=/usr/local/libxml2 \

        –with-gd=/usr/local/gd2 \

        –with-jpeg-dir \

        –with-png-dir \

        –with-bz2 \

        –with-freetype-dir \

        –with-iconv-dir \

        –with-zlib-dir  \

        –with-openssl=/usr/local/openssl \

        –with-mcrypt=/usr/local/libmcrypt \

        –enable-sysvsem \

        –enable-inline-optimization \

        –enable-soap \

        –enable-gd-native-ttf \

        –enable-ftp \

        –enable-mbstring \

        –enable-exif \

        –disable-debug \

        –disable-ipv6

    

make

make install

cp php.ini-dist /usr/local/php-fcgi/etc/php.ini
复制代码注:关于如何安装gd库,mysql的编译安装,本文将不介绍,本文重点在于介绍nginx的安装与配置,如想了解其它相关的问题可以到
LinuxPk去找相关的贴子(http://bbs.linuxpk.com)

二.Nginx编译安装
1.创建nginx运行用户和虚拟主机目录groupadd www -g 48

useradd -u 48 -g www www

mkdir -p /data/www/wwwroot

chown -R www:www /data/www/wwwroot
复制代码2.安装lighttpd中附带的spawn-fcgi,用来启动php-cgi
先编译安装lighttpd产生spawn-fcgi二进制文件.cd /usr/local/src/lighttpd-1.4.18
http://www.knowsky.com/
cp src/spawn-fcgi /usr/local/php-fcgi/bin/
复制代码启动php-cgi进程,监听127.0.0.1的8085端口,进程数为250(如果服务器内存小于3GB,可以只开启25个进程),用户为www:
/usr/local/php-fcgi/bin/spawn-fcgi -a 127.0.0.1 -p 8085 -C 250 -u www -f /usr/local/php-fcgi/bin/php-cgi

3.nginx的安装与配置
  安装Nginx所需的pcre库:
  http://ftp.dk.debian.org/exim/pcre/pcre-7.3.tar.gz  tar zxvf pcre-7.2.tar.gz

  cd pcre-7.2/

  ./configure

  make && make install

  cd ../

 

  http://sysoev.ru/nginx/nginx-0.5.32.tar.gz

  tar zxvf nginx-0.5.32.tar.gz

  cd  nginx-0.5.32

./configure –user=www –group=www –prefix=/usr/local/nginx/ –with-http_stub_status_module –with-

 

openssl=/usr/local/openssl

make && make install
复制代码此模块非核心模块,需要在编译的时候手动添加编译参数 –with-http_stub_status_module
  配置nginx

三.Nginx主配置文件及PHP支持.

1.nginx.conf 主配置文件的配置
#cd /usr/local/nginx/conf/
#cp  nginx.conf nginx.conf.cao
#cat /dev/null > nginx.conf
#vi nginx.conf       //主配置文件user  www www;

 

worker_processes 10;

 

#error_log  logs/error.log;

#error_log  logs/error.log  notice;

#error_log  logs/error.log  info;

 

pid        /var/run/nginx.pid;

 

#Specifies the value for maximum file descriptors that can be opened by this process.

worker_rlimit_nofile 51200;

 

events

{

       use epoll;

 

       #maxclient = worker_processes * worker_connections / cpu_number

       worker_connections 51200;

}

 

http

{

       include       conf/mime.types;

       default_type  application/octet-stream;

 

       log_format  main  ‘$remote_addr - $remote_user [$time_local] $request ‘

                         ‘"$status" $body_bytes_sent "$http_referer" ‘

                         ‘"$http_user_agent" "$http_x_forwarded_for"’;

 

       #access_log  /data/www/logs/access.log  main;

       #sendfile on;

       tcp_nopush     on;

       tcp_nodelay    off;

 

       keepalive_timeout 60;

  

       client_header_timeout  3m;

       client_body_timeout    3m;

       send_timeout           3m;

       connection_pool_size        256;

       client_header_buffer_size    1k;

       large_client_header_buffers    4 2k;

       request_pool_size        4k;

       output_buffers   4 32k;

       postpone_output  1460;

       client_max_body_size       10m;

       client_body_buffer_size    256k;

       client_body_temp_path /dev/shm/client_body_temp;

       proxy_temp_path            /usr/local/nginx/proxy_temp;

       fastcgi_temp_path          /usr/local/nginx/fastcgi_temp;

   

       #gzip

       gzip on;

       gzip_http_version 1.0;

       gzip_comp_level 2;

       gzip_proxied any;

       gzip_types text/plain text/html text/CSS application/x-javascript text/xml application/xml application/xml+rss text/Javascript;

       gzip_min_length 1100;

       gzip_buffers 4 8k;

     

       # The following includes are specified for virtual hosts   //以下是加载虚拟主机配置.

       #[url]www.redocn.com[/url]

       include          conf/vhosts/www_redocn_com.conf;

       #bbs.redocn.com

       include          conf/vhosts/bbs_redocn_com.conf;

       #blog.redocn.com

       include          conf/vhosts/blog_redocn_com.conf;

       #down.redocn.com

       include          conf/vhosts/down_redocn_com.conf;

}
复制代码2.配置支持Fastcgi模式的PHP
[[email protected] conf]# cat enable_php5.conffastcgi_pass  127.0.0.1:8085;

fastcgi_index index.php;

 

fastcgi_param  GATEWAY_INTERFACE  CGI/1.1;

fastcgi_param  SERVER_SOFTWARE    nginx;

#new ac upload

#fastcgi_pass_request_body off;

#client_body_in_file_only clean;

#fastcgi_param  REQUEST_BODY_FILE  $request_body_file;

#

 

fastcgi_param  QUERY_STRING       $query_string;

fastcgi_param  REQUEST_METHOD     $request_method;

fastcgi_param  CONTENT_TYPE       $content_type;

fastcgi_param  CONTENT_LENGTH     $content_length;

 

fastcgi_param  SCRIPT_FILENAME    $document_root$fastcgi_script_name;

fastcgi_param  SCRIPT_NAME        $fastcgi_script_name;

fastcgi_param  REQUEST_URI        $request_uri;

fastcgi_param  DOCUMENT_URI       $document_uri;

fastcgi_param  DOCUMENT_ROOT      $document_root;

fastcgi_param  SERVER_PROTOCOL    $server_protocol;

 

fastcgi_param  REMOTE_ADDR        $remote_addr;

fastcgi_param  REMOTE_PORT        $remote_port;

fastcgi_param  SERVER_ADDR        $server_addr;

fastcgi_param  SERVER_PORT        $server_port;

fastcgi_param  SERVER_NAME        $server_name;

 

# PHP only, required if PHP was built with –enable-force-cgi-redirect

fastcgi_param  REDIRECT_STATUS    200;
复制代码四,多虚拟主机应用配置案例.

#mkdir /usr/local/nginx/conf/vhosts         //建立虚拟主机配置存放目录.
1.www.redocn.com                            //首站配置
[[email protected] vhosts]#vi www_redocn_com.confserver

       {

               listen       80;

               server_name  www.redocn.com;

               index index.html index.htm index.php;

               root  /data/www/wwwroot;

               error_page 404 http://bbs.redocn.com;

               rewrite ^/bbs/(.*) http://bbs.redocn.com/$1;

               location ~ .*\.php?$

               {

                       include conf/enable_php5.conf;

               }

       }
复制代码注: 关于rewite需求,红动中国希望当用户访问http://www.redocn.com/bbs的时候自动转至http://bbs.redocn.com
在原apache中利用redirect实现
Redirect /bbs http://bbs.redocn.com

本文中在nginx下利用rewrite实现:
rewrite ^/bbs/(.*) http://bbs.redocn.com/$1;
2.[[email protected] vhosts] vi bbs_redocn_com.confserver

       {

               listen       80;

               server_name  bbs.redocn.com yan.redocn.com majia.redocn.com wt.redocn.com;

               index index.html index.htm index.php;

               root  /home/www/htdocs/bbs;

               access_log /var/log/nginx/access_bbs.redocn.com.log  combined;

               location / {

               #bbs rewrite

                         rewrite ^/archiver/((fid|tid)-[\w\-]+\.html)$   /archiver/index.php?$1 last;

                         rewrite ^/forum-([0-9]+)-([0-9]+)\.html$   /forumdisplay.php?fid=$1&page=$2 last;

                         rewrite ^/thread-([0-9]+)-([0-9]+)-([0-9]+)\.html$  /viewthread.php?tid=$1&extra=page\%3D$3&page=$2 last;

                         rewrite ^/space-(username|uid)-(.+)\.html$   /space.php?$1=$2 last;

                         rewrite ^/tag-(.+)\.html$ /tag.php?name=$1 last;

                         break;

               #error

               error_page 404 /index.php;

               #redirect server error pages to the static page /50x.html

               error_page   500 502 503 504  /50x.html;

               location = /50x.html {

                root   html;

                  }

                         }

               #Preventing hot linking of images and other file types

               location ~* ^.+\.(gif|jpg|png|swf|flv|rar|zip)$ {

                       valid_referers none blocked server_names

                              *.redocn.com redocn.com *.taobao.com taobao.com

                              bbs.blueidea.com bbs.asiaci.com bbs.arting365.com forum.chinavisual.com softbbs.pconline.com.cn

                              bbs.chinaddu.com bbs.photops.com *.baidu.com *.google.com *.google.cn *.soso.com *.yahoo.com.cn

                              *.yahoo.cn;

               if ($invalid_referer) {

                rewrite   ^/   http://www.redocn.com/images/redocn.gif;

                #return   403;

                                     }

    }

   

               #support php

               location ~ .*\.php?$

               {

                       include conf/enable_php5.conf;

               }

       

       }
复制代码注:
1.红动中国采用高性能的Discuz!论坛,原apache的rewrite规则几乎不要做什么修改即可全部移植到nginx下.
静态化配置见面上面的:#bbs rewrite部分.
2.一般论坛都希望实现防盗链功能,在apache很轻松实现?在nginx下是否容易实现呢?答案是肯定的.         #Preventing hot linking of images and other file types

                     valid_referers none blocked server_names *.redocn.com redocn.com …你允许连接的网址;

               if ($invalid_referer) {

                rewrite   ^/   http://www.redocn.com/images/redocn.gif;  //让别人盗链时显示你指定的图片.

                #return   403;

                                     }
复制代码3.blog.redocn.com
[[email protected] vhosts]#vi blog_redocn_com.confserver

       {

               listen       80;

               server_name  blog.redocn.com;

               index index.html index.htm index.php;

               root  /data/www/wwwroot/blog;

               error_page 404 http://bbs.redocn.com;

               #supsite rewrite

               rewrite ^([0-9]+)/spacelist(.*)$ index.php?$1/action_spacelist$2;

               rewrite ^([0-9]+)/viewspace_(.+)$ index.php?$1/action_viewspace_itemid_$2;

               rewrite ^([0-9]+)/viewbbs_(.+)$ index.php?$1/action_viewbbs_tid_$2;

               rewrite ^([0-9]+)/(.*)$ index.php?$1/$2;

               rewrite ^([0-9]+)$ index.php?$1;

               rewrite ^action_(.+)$ index.php?action_$1;

               rewrite ^category_(.+)$ index.php?action_category_catid_$1;

               rewrite ^itemlist_(.+)$ index.php?action_itemlist_catid_$1;

               rewrite ^viewnews_(.+)$ index.php?action_viewnews_itemid_$1;

               rewrite ^viewthread_(.+)$ index.php?action_viewthread_tid_$1;

               rewrite ^index([\.a-zA-Z0-9]*)$ index.php;

               rewrite ^html/([0-9]+)/viewnews_itemid_([0-9]+)\.html$ index.php?action_viewnews_itemid_$2;

 

 

               rewrite ^/([0-9]+)/spacelist(.+)$ /index.php?uid/$1/action/spacelist/type$2;

               rewrite ^/([0-9]+)/viewspace(.+)$ /index.php?uid/$1/action/viewspace/itemid$2;

               rewrite ^/([0-9]+)/viewbbs(.+)$ /index.php?uid/$1/action/viewbbs/tid$2;

               rewrite ^/([0-9]+)/(.*)$ /index.php?uid/$1/$2;

               rewrite ^/([0-9]+)$ /index.php?uid/$1;

 

               rewrite ^/action(.+)$ /index.php?action$1;

               rewrite ^/category(.+)$ /index.php?action/category/catid$1;

               rewrite ^/viewnews(.+)$ /index.php?action/viewnews/itemid$1;

               rewrite ^/viewthread(.+)$ /index.php?action/viewthread/tid$1;

               rewrite ^/mygroup(.+)$ /index.php?action/mygroup/gid$1;

 

               location ~ .*\.php?$

               {

                       include conf/enable_php5.conf;

               }

       }
复制代码注:blog采用功能强大的Supesite作为Blog站点: http://www.supesite.com/
1.Blog如何在Nginx里实现静态化,具体设置见,上面的#supesite rewrite

4.down.redocn.com
[[email protected] vhosts]# vi down_redocn_com.conflimit_zone   one  $binary_remote_addr  10m;

server

       {

               listen       80;

               server_name  down.redocn.com;

               index index.html index.htm index.php;

               root   /data/www/wwwroot/down;

               error_page 404 /index.php;

               # redirect server error pages to the static page /50x.html

               error_page   500 502 503 504  /50x.html;

               location = /50x.html {

                root   html;

                  }

               #Zone limit

               location / {

                   limit_conn   one  1;

                   limit_rate  20k;

               }

 

             

               # serve static files

               location ~ ^/(images|javascript|js|css|Flash|media|static)/  {

               root    /data/www/wwwroot/down;

               expires 30d;

                }

       }
复制代码注:
由于现在的BT下载软件越来越多了,我们如何限制下载的并发数和速率呢?apache需要三方模块,nginx就不用了
在nginx利用两个指令即可实现:limit_zone(limit_conn) 来限制并发数,limit_rate来限制下载的速率,请看上面的配置实例.

5.启动nginx服务/usr/local/php-fcgi/bin/spawn-fcgi -a 127.0.0.1 -p 8085 -C 250 -u www -f/usr/local/php-fcgi/bin/php-cgi

/usr/local/nginx/sbin/nginx -c /usr/local/nginx/conf/nginx.conf
复制代码你可以把上面两条命令制做成系统启动服务脚本,相关的脚本在网上也很多,本文就不再贴出来了,给出一个实例链接:
http://topfunky.net/svn/shovel/nginx/init.d/nginx

五.问题及经验总结:
1.安装Discuz论坛后,无法上传大于M以上的附件?
在主配置文件里加入:client_max_body_size       10m; 详细指令说明请参见(六)提供的Wiki链接.

2.Discuz附件无法下载附件?
最近遇到一个奇怪的问题在nginx下discuz论坛无法下载附件,后来打开error_log才知道,仍后一看/usr/local分区满了,
清了一大堆无用文件后,马上就正常了.

以上是本人迁移和测试过程中遇到的两个小问题,在此附上说明,只是希望配置nginx的朋友不要犯我一样的问题.
欢迎联系NetSeek(狂热linux爱好者^_^ msn:[email protected] QQ:67888954 Gtalk:[email protected]Gmail.com).

六.相关链接:
  1.Discuz!.net高性能的PHP论坛程序 http://www.discuz.net Supesite:  http://www.supesite.com/
  2.Nginx参考文档:http://wiki.codemongers.com/
  3.利用Nginx实现负载均衡(阿叶大哥的文章):http://www.imysql.com/comment/reply/210
  4.linuxPk[Linux宝库]:http://bbs.linuxpk.com
  5.红动中国 http://bbs.redocn.com